• Chanvin M., Lamarque F., Diko N., Agil M., Micheletta J., Widdig A. (2023).Ten years of positive impact of a conservation education program on children’s knowledge and behaviour towards crested macaques (Macaca nigra) in the Greater Tangkoko Area, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Int J Primatol. DOI. Abstract
    In areas where primates are threatened, environmental education interventions are one decisive route to increase local population’s knowledge and thus encourage their positive attitudes and habits to be able to preserve the environment and wildlife on a local and global scale. This study assesses the impact of Tangkoko Conservation Education (TCE), the conservation education programme of the Macaca Nigra Project, running since 2011 in North Sulawesi for school children, teachers, and the local population. TCE’s aim is to help them improve their knowledge, habits, and behaviours towards their local environment, especially the critically endangered and endemic crested macaques (Macaca nigra). We measured the efficacy of TCE’s programme on pupils using questionnaires provided one month before and one month after a yearlong conservation education programme at school. Pupils’ knowledge and behaviour scores significantly increased after their participation in the programme. Their habits score also improved but this increase was not statistically significant. Female pupils scored significantly higher than male pupils in terms of positive behaviour towards wildlife. Children participating in the programme more than once seemed to obtain higher scores in their second participation, although the sample size was too small for a formal analysis. Despite some limitations, this study demonstrates the positive impact of our programme on young people living in areas where primates are threatened. We hope that this research will inspire similar programmes based in Sulawesi.

Macaca nigra, Juvenile resting ©MNP


  • Arismayanti, E., Waterman, J. O., Pasetha, A., Qomariah, I. N., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Astuti, D. A. (2022): Pregnant and lactating Macaca Nigra: Behavior and food selection. Biotropia Vol. 29 No. 2, 2022: 150 – 160. DOI.
  • Bertrand D.A., Berman, C.M., Agil, M., Sutiah, U., Engelhardt, A. (2022). Rethinking tolerance to tourism: Behavioral responses by wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra) to tourists. In: Gursky, S.L., Supriatna, J., Achorn, A. (eds) Ecotourism and Indonesia’s Primates. Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects. Springer, Cham. DOI.
  • Clark P. R., Waller B. M., Agil M., Micheletta J. (2022). Crested macaque facial movements are more intense and stereotyped in potentially risky social interactions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Biological Sciences 377: 20210307 DOI.
  • Mielke A., Waller B. M., Pérez C., Rincon A. V., Duboscq J., Micheletta J. (2022). NetFACS: Using network science to understand facial communication systems. Behavior Research Methods 54.4: 1912-1927. DOI.
  • Neumann C., Kulik L., Agil M., Engelhardt A., Widdig (2022). A. Temporal dynamics and fitness consequences of coalition formation in male primates. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences 289: 20212626. DOI.
  • Rebout, N., De Marco, A., Sanna, A. et al. (2022). Tolerant and intolerant macaques differ in the context specificity of their calls and how they ‘comment’ on the interactions of others. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 76, 67 (2022). DOI.
  • Rincon A. V., Waller B. M., Duboscq J., Mielke A., Pérez C., Clark P. R., Micheletta J. (2022). Socially tolerant macaques use more complex facial behavior than intolerant macaques. bioRxiv. DOI.
  • Twining-Ward, C., Luna, J.R., Back, J.P., Barakagwira, J., Bicca-Marques, J.C., Chanvin, M., Diko, N., Duboscq, J., Fan, P., Galán-Acedo, C., Gogarten, J.F., Guo, S., Guzman-Caro, D. C., Hou R., Kalbitzer U., Kaplin, B. A., Lee, S. L., Mekonnen, A., Mungongo, P., Nautiyal, H., Omeja, P., Ramananjato, V., .Raoelinjanakolona, N. N., Razafindratsima, O., Sarabian, C., Sarkar, D., Serio-Silva, J. C., Rismayanti, Chapman, C. A. (2022). Social media’s potential to promote conservation at the local level: an assessment in eleven primate range countries. Folia Primatologica, 93:2, 1-11. DOI.
  • Wulandari, S. A. M., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Erni Sulistiawati, E. (2022): The Gastrointestinal Parasites in Habituated Group of Sulawesi Black-crested Macaque (Macaca nigra) in Tangkoko, North Sulawesi. Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology 7(3):73044. DOI.


  • Martínez-Íñigo, L., Engelhardt, A., Agil, M., Pilot, M.,  Majolo, B. (2021). Intergroup lethal gang attacks in wild crested macaques, Macaca nigra. Animal Behaviour, 180, 81-91. DOI.
  • Sadoughi, B., Girard-Buttoz, C., Engelhardt, A., Heistermann, M., & Ostner, J. (2021). Non-invasive assessment of meta- bolic responses to food restriction using urinary triiodothyronine and cortisol measurement in macaques. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 306, 113736. DOI.


  • Clark, P.R., Waller, B.M., Burrows, A.M., Julle-Danière, E., Agil, M., Engelhardt, A., Micheletta, J. (2020). Morphological variants of silent bared-teeth displays have different social interaction outcomes in crested macaques (Macaca nigra). American Jour- nal of Physical Anthropology, 173(3), 411-422. DOI .
  • Mielke, A., Waller, B., Perez, C. J., Duboscq, J., & Micheletta, J. (2020). NetFACS: Using network science to under- stand facial communication systems. PsyArXiv. DOI.
  • Pasetha A., Danish, LM., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Agil, M., Engelhardt, A. (2020). Identification of follower status based on male proximity score in crested macaque (2020). HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 27:241-246. DOI.
  • Rebout, N., De Marco, A., Lone, J.-C., Sanna, A., Cozzolino, R., Michelet- ta, J., Sterck, E. H. M. , Langermans, J. A. M, Lemasson, A., Thier- ry, B. (2020). Tolerant and intolerant macaques show different levels of structural complexity in their vocal communication. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B. 28720200439. DOI.
  • Tyrrell, M., Berman, C. M., Duboscq, J., Agil, M., Sutrisno, T., Engelhardt, A. (2020). Avoidant social style among wild crested ma- caque males (Macaca nigra) in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia, Behaviour 157: 451-246. DOI.
  • Waller, B. M., Julle-Daniere, E., Micheletta, J. (2020). Measuring the evolution of facial ‘expression’ using multi-species FACS. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 113:1-11. DOI.
Macaca nigra, swelling ©MNP

Group of Crested macaques  


  • Holzner, A., Ruppert, N., Swat, F., Schmidt, M., Weiß, B. M., Villa, G., Mansor, A., Sah, S. A. M., Engelhardt, A., Kühl, H. S., Widdig, A. (2019). Macaques can contribute to greener practices in oil palm plantations when used as biological pest control. Current Biology, 29(20), R1066-R1067. DOI.


  • Gholib, G., Heistermann, M., Agil, M., Supriatna, I., Purwantara, B., Nugraha, Tp., Engelhardt, A. (2018). Comparison of fecal preservation and extraction methods for steroid hormone metabolite analysis in wild crested macaques. Primates 59:1-12. DOI.


  • Duboscq, J., Neumann, C., Agil, M., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Thierry, B., Engelhardt, A. (2017). Degrees of Freedom in Social Bonds of Crested Macaque Females. Animal Behaviour. Vol. 123, p. 411-426. ISSN: 0003-3472. DOI. .
  • Engelhardt, A., Muniz, L., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Widdig, A. (2017): Highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for the assessment of male reproductive skew and genetic variation in Critically Endangered crested macaques (Macaca nigra). International Journal of Primatology 38 :672-691. DOI.
  • Marty, Pr., Hodges, K., Heistermann, M., Agil, M., Engelhardt, A. (2017): Is social dispersal stressful? A study in male crested macaques (Macaca nigra). Hormones and Behavior 87: 62-68. DOI.


  • Marty, Pr., Hodges, K., Agil, M., Engelhardt, A. (2016): Determinants of immigration strategies in male crested macaques (Macaca nigra). Scientific Reports 6: 32028. DOI.
  • Kerhoas, D., Kulik, L., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Agil, M., Engelhardt, A., Widdig, A. (2016): Mother-male bond, but not paternity, influences male-infant affiliation in wild crested macaques. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 70:1117–1130. DOI.


  • Adams, MJ., Majolo, B., Ostner, J., Schülke, O., De Marco, A., Thierry, B., Engelhardt, A., Widdig, A., Gerald, MS., Weiss, A. (2015). Personality structure and social style in macaques. Journal of personality and social psychology, 109 :338-353. DOI.
  • Micheletta, J., Whitehouse, J., Parr, LA., Marshman, P., Engelhardt, A., Waller, BM. (2015). Familiar and unfamiliar face recognition in crested macaques (Macaca nigra). Royal Society open science, 2 :150109. DOI.
  • Marty, PR., Hodges, K., Agil, M., Engelhardt, A. (2015). Alpha male replacements and delayed dispersal in crested macaques (Macaca nigra). American journal of primatology. DOI.
  • Higham, JP., Kraus, C., Stahl-Hennig, C., Engelhardt, A., Fuchs, D., Heistermann, M. (2015). Evaluating noninvasive markers of nonhuman primate immune activation and inflammation. American journal of physical anthropology, 158 :673-684. DOI.
  • Danish, LM., Heistermann, M., Agil, M., Engelhardt, A. (2015). Validation of a Novel Collection Device for Non-Invasive Urine Sampling from Free-Ranging Animals. PloS One, 10: e0142051. DOI.


  • Duboscq, J., Agil, M., Engelhardt, A., Thierry, B. (2014). The function of postconflict interactions: new prospects from the study of a tolerant species of primate Animal Behaviour, 87 :107-120. DOI.
  • Kerhoas, D., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Agil, M., Widdig, A., Engelhardt, A. (2014). Social and ecological factors influencing offspring survival in wild macaques. Behavioral Ecology : official journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology, 25 :1164-1172. DOI.
  • Engelhardt, A., Zinner, D., Fickenscher, G.H., Roos, C., Anandam, M.V., Bennett, E.L., Davenport, T.R.B., Davies, N.J., Detwiler, K.M., Eudey, A.A., Gadsby, E.L., Groves, C.P., Healy, A., Karanth, K.P., Molur, S., Nadler, T., Richardson, M.C., Riley, E.P., Rylands, A.B, Sheeran, L.K., Ting, N., Wallis, J., Waters, S., Whittaker, D.J. (2013). Family Cercopithecidae (Old World Monkeys) Mittermeier RA, Rylands AB, Wilson DE. Handbook of the Mammals of the World Primates 3 Lynx Edicions 9788496553897.


  • Micheletta, J., Engelhardt, A., Matthews, L., Agil, M., Waller, B. (2013). Multicomponent and Multimodal Lipsmacking in Crested Macaques () Higham JP, Semple S. American Journal of Primatology, 75 :763-773. DOI.
  • Duboscq, J., Micheletta, J., Agil, M., Hodges, K., Thierry, B., Engelhardt, A. (2013). Social tolerance in wild female crested macaques (Macaca nigra) in Tangkoko-Batuangus Nature Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia. American journal of primatology, 75 :361-375 >DOI.
  • Neumann, C., Agil, M., Widdig, A., Engelhardt, A. (2013). Personality of wild male crested macaques (Macaca nigra). PloS one, 8 :e69383. DOI.


  • Micheletta, J., Waller, B.M., Panggur, M.R., Neumann, C., Duboscq, J., Agil, M., Engelhardt, A. (2012). Social bonds affect anti-predator behaviour in a tolerant species of macaque, Macaca nigra Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279 :4042-4050. DOI.
  • Palacios, J.F.G., Engelhardt, A., Agil, M., Hodges, K., Bogia, R., Waltert, M. (2012). Status of, and conservation recommendations for, the Critically Endangered crested black macaque Macaca nigra in Tangkoko, Indonesia Oryx, 46 :290-297. DOI.
  • Dubuc, C., Muniz, L., Heistermann, M., Widdig, A., Engelhardt, A. (2012). Do males time their mate-guarding effort with the fertile phase in order to secure fertilisation in Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques? Hormones and behavior, 61 :696-705. DOI.
  • Higham, J.P., Heistermann, M., Saggau, C., Agil, M., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Engelhardt, A. (2012). Sexual signalling in female crested macaques and the evolution of primate fertility signals. BMC evolutionary biology, 12 :89. DOI.
Mother with infant © Jerome Micheletta

Bima with red scrotum © MNP


  • Dubuc, C., Muniz, L., Heistermann, M., Engelhardt, A., Widdig, A. (2011). Testing the priority-of-access model in a seasonally breeding primate species Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 65 :1615-1627. DOI.
  • Neumann, C., Duboscq, J., Dubuc, C., Ginting, A., Irwan, A.M., Agil, M., Widdig, A., Engelhardt, A. (2011). Assessing dominance hierarchies: validation and advantages of progressive evaluation with Elo-rating Animal Behaviour, 82 :911-921. DOI.
  • Girard-Buttoz C, Higham JP, Heistermann M, Wedegärtner S, Maestripieri D, Engelhardt A. 2011. Urinary C-peptide measurement as a marker of nutritional status in macaques. PloS one, 6 :e18042. DOI.


  • Neumann, C., Assahad, G., Hammerschmidt, K., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Engelhardt, A. (2010). Loud calls in male crested macaques, Macaca nigra: a signal of dominance in a tolerant species Animal Behaviour, 79 :187-193. DOI.


  • Duboscq, J., Neumann, C., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Engelhardt, A. (2008). Daytime birth of a baby crested black macaque (Macaca nigra) in the wild Behavioural Processes, 79 :81-84. DOI .